Citations 101: In-Text Citations

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In-Text Citations

Anything that you quote directly (including copying and pasting) from another source needs to be enclosed in quotation marks: “ ”

Example quote:

Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered, weak and weary...

When including a quote in your paper, you need to give credit. Where did you obtain this quote? This is done by using in-text citations (sometimes called parenthetical citations). An in-text citation is a "shortcut" citation; it gives the basic information to the reader, who can then match the in-text citation to the full citation that is included in the references or works cited page.

Every in-text citation must have a corresponding complete citation in the references list. Additionally, every entry in the references list should be cited within the paper as an in-text citation. If you do not use a resource within the paper, it does not belong in a references or works cited page.

Typically for in-text citations, you will need two pieces of information: the last name of the author, and the page the information came from. Some styles also require the date of publication.

Author: Poe
Page Number: 773
Date of Publication: 2002

Here are several examples of in-text citations:

  • APA: (Poe, 2002, p. 773)
  • MLA: (Poe 773)
  • Chicago Author-Date: (Poe 2002, 773)
  • CSE: (Poe 2002)

In many cases when you want to incorporate outside information into your paper, you will want to use your own words rather than using a direct quote. This is called paraphrasing. When you paraphrase you still must cite your source.

When you are ready to cite your source fully in your references or works cited page, refer to the other pages of this guide for help.

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