Citations 101: Chicago

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The Chicago Manual of Style is commonly used for history and the social sciences.


Official Guide

  • The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition (REF Z253 .U69 2010, 2nd Floor) - The official guide to the Chicago style.
  • Chicago Manual of Style Online [on-campus access  |  off-campus access] - The official website for Chicago style.

Unofficial Guides


Quick Tips

  • The complete author's name should be given.
  • For items published before 1900, the publisher's name may be omitted.
  • For the publication title, use title capitalization.

Citation Examples

There are two ways to do Chicago Manual of Style citations. Most humanities, literature and history papers use the Notes & Bibliography style. Author-Date is used for papers in the physical, natural and social sciences.

Citing a Book

Citation:

Seefeldt, Kristin S. and John D. Graham. America’s Poor and the Great Recession. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2013.

Endnote:

Chicago Manual of Style, Notes & Bibliography style recommends using endnotes or footnotes instead of in-text citations. Many of the instructors at Santa Fe prefer the in-text citation method. Please consult with your instructor to determine his or her preference.

  1. Kristin S. Seedfeldt and John D. Graham, America’s Poor and the Great Recession (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2013), 145.
  2. Seedfeldt and Graham, America's Poor, 118.
In-text citation:

(Seedfedlt and Graham 2013, 145)


Citing Journal Articles

without DOI:

Little, Geoffrey. "'The People Must Have Plenty of Good Books': The Lady Tweedsmuir Prairie Library Scheme, 1936-40." Library & Information History 28, no. 2 (June 2012): 103-116. http://db25.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN= 76140568&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

with DOI:

Hicks, Jeremy. "'Soul Destroyers': Soviet Reporting of Nazi Genocide and its Perpetrators at the Krasnodar and Khar'kov Trials." History 98, no. 332: 530-547. doi:10.1111/1468-229X.12022.

Endnote
  1. Geoffrey Little, "The People Must Have Plenty of Good Books': The Lady Tweedsmuir Prairie Library Scheme, 1936-40," Library & Information History 28, no. 2: 109, http://db25.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h& AN=76140568&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
  2. Little, "The People Must Have Plenty of Good Books," 112.
In-text Citation:

(Little 2012, 109)


Citing Web Resources

Author unknown:

"The Bill of Rights." U.S. History Online Textbook. Accessed April 30, 2014. http://www.ushistory.org/us/18a.asp.

Author known:

Jaffee, David. "America Comes of Age: 1876–1900." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. Last modified April 2007. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/amer/hd_amer.htm.

*If the website does not give the last update date, include the access date.

Endnote
  1. "The Bill of Rights," U.S. History Online Textbook, accessed April 30, 2014, http://www.ushistory.org/us/18a.asp.
  2. David Jaffee, "America Comes of Age: 1876–1900," Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, last modified April 2007, http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/amer/hd_amer.htm.
In-text citation:

(U.S. History.org)

(Jaffee)

Citing a Book

Flannery, Kent V. 2012. The Creation of Inequality: How Our Prehistoric Ancestors Set the Stage for Monarchy, Slavery, and Empire. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

In-text citation:

The text citations in the Author-Date Style consists of the author's last name and the year of publication of the work cited. No punctuation is used between the name and the date.

(Flannery 2012)

For direct quotations include the page number.

(Flannery 2012, 103)


Citing Journal Articles

With DOI:

Shaopeng, Dong, Gulsen Ucarkus, Steven G. Wesnousky, Jillian Maloney, Graham Kent, Neal Driscoll, and Robert Baskin. 2014. "Strike-Slip Faulting Along the Wassuk Range of the Northern Walker Lane, Nevada." Geosphere 10 (1): 40-48. doi: 10.1130/GES00912.1.

Without DOI:

Ergene, Boğaç A., and Atabey Kaygun. 2012. "Spouse Selection and Marital Mobility in the Ottoman Empire: Observations from Eighteenth-Century Kastamonu." Historical Methods 45 (2): 3-20. http://db25.linccweb.org/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&
AN=71346894&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

In-text citation:

(Shaopeng, et al. 2014)


Citing Web Resources

Date Given:

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. "Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data." Last modified August 9. https://www.epa.gov/ghgemissions/global-greenhouse-gas-emissions-data.

*If the author is the same as the website, omit the website.

No Date:

Cornell University Law School. 2014. "Marriage Laws." Legal Information Institute. Accessed May 1. http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/table_marriage.

*If the website does not give the last update date, include the access date (in this example, May 1, 2014 is the access date).

In-text citation

(United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016)

(Cornell University Law School 2014)

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